IBA West End of Lake Ontario
Hamilton, Ontario
Site Summary
ON022 Latitude
Longitude
43.315° N
79.520° W
Elevation
Size
75 m
549.54 km²
Habitats:
freshwater lake
Land Use:
Tourism/recreation, Urban/industrial/transport, Water management
Potential or ongoing Threats:
Disturbance, Industrial pollution, Recreation/tourism
IBA Criteria: Globally Significant: Congregatory Species, Waterfowl Concentrations
Conservation status:
Restricted access for IBA coordinators
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Site Description
This site is defined generally as the part of Lake Ontario west of a line stretching from Port Credit on the north shore to the mouth of the Niagara River on the south shore, and bounded on the west by Burlington Bar. The shoreline is one of low relief (<10m), with unconsolidated cliffs of clay-silt sediments. The coast is straight, with beaches across the mouths of small rivers ('Southeast Coast' subdivision), sedimentary rock outcrops ('Burlington Bar System' subdivision), and a wide sand barrier, up to 2 m, high across Hamilton Harbour. There is widespread artificial protection of the shoreline. Erosion rates are low as shoreline is relatively sheltered and prevailing winds are westerly. Shore-zone ice can persist up to 4 months; ice forms at west end of the lake by late December, and breaks appear in late February. Water currents are sensitive to wind direction, but appear to be predominantly counter-clockwise around Lake Ontario. Water temperatures reach 24 degrees C in late summer. Maximum lake depth at the west end of the lake is 100 m; lake contours indicate a gradual slope from the shoreline to this depth.

Beginning in 2015, an IBA-wide volunteer waterbird census is being held every other Saturday. More details, including a Map are available here.
Birds
The west end of Lake Ontario is not a discrete area, but is defined by the impressive congregations of waterfowl which have gathered there annually since about 1990, primarily in late winter and early spring. Flocks of mainly diving ducks number in thousands, sometimes tens of thousands, with the more abundant species being Greater Scaup, White-winged Scoter, and Long-tailed Ducks (these three species all occur in numbers greater than 1% of their estimated North American population). Amongst these huge flocks, several other species of diving duck occur in impressive numbers for an inland location - including Common Goldeneye, King Eider, Red-breasted Merganser, and Surf Scoter.

Where the flocks gather within this area appears to be weather dependent; that is, strong winds cause the flocks to shift locations, presumably in response to demands for shelter and feeding opportunities. The concentrations of waterfowl are most likely in response to the invasion and colonization of the shallow waters by dreissenid mussels, Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha and Quagga Mussel D. bugensis. It is likely that most foraging for mussels by scaups, goldeneyes and scoters occurs on shelves less than 20 m deep around the perimeter of the lake; however, Long-tailed Ducks can forage in depths up to 100 m.




IBA Criteria
SpeciesT | A | I Number Year Month Day Season A4i/ii B4i/ii/iii A1 B1 C1 Reference
Acadian Flycatcher 1 2000 5 21 SP 47,000 47,000 1 eBird Canada
Acadian Flycatcher 2 2005 5 16 SP 47,000 47,000 1 eBird Canada
Acadian Flycatcher 1 2009 5 20 SP 47,000 47,000 1 eBird Canada
Acadian Flycatcher 1 2013 5 16 SP 47,000 47,000 1 eBird Canada
Acadian Flycatcher 1 2013 5 17 SP 47,000 47,000 1 eBird Canada
Acadian Flycatcher 1 2013 5 18 SP 47,000 47,000 1 eBird Canada
Acadian Flycatcher 1 2013 5 21 SP 47,000 47,000 1 eBird Canada
Acadian Flycatcher 1 2014 5 13 SP 47,000 47,000 1 eBird Canada
Acadian Flycatcher 1 2014 5 14 SP 47,000 47,000 1 eBird Canada
Acadian Flycatcher 1 2014 5 15 SP 47,000 47,000 1 eBird Canada
Acadian Flycatcher 1 2015 5 17 SP 47,000 47,000 1 eBird Canada
Acadian Flycatcher 1 2016 8 27 FA 47,000 47,000 1 eBird Canada
Barn Owl 1 2009 11 8 FA 50,000 3,000 1 eBird Canada
Barn Owl 1 2009 11 9 FA 50,000 3,000 1 eBird Canada
Barn Owl 1 2009 11 10 FA 50,000 3,000 1 eBird Canada
Barn Owl 1 2009 11 11 FA 50,000 3,000 1 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 230 2005 8 31 FA 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 35 2006 8 29 FA 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 120 2006 9 3 FA 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 24 2007 7 13 SU 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 30 2010 5 17 SP 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 100 2010 8 23 FA 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 35 2011 8 28 FA 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 38 2011 8 28 FA 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 25 2012 7 25 SU 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 25 2015 5 23 SP 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 40 2015 5 23 SP 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 40 2015 5 24 SP 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 25 2015 8 18 FA 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 40 2015 8 23 FA 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 50 2015 8 26 FA 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 30 2015 8 29 FA 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 60 2015 8 29 FA 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 25 2016 4 27 SP 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 28 2017 5 6 SP 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 25 2017 5 7 SP 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 30 2017 5 18 SP 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 30 2017 5 20 SP 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Chimney Swift 45 2017 5 26 SP 150,000 150,000 118 eBird Canada
Common Goldeneye 8,700 1994 1 9 WI 25,668 10,000 eBird Canada
Common Goldeneye 30,000 1997 2 5 WI 25,668 10,000 eBird Canada
Common Goldeneye 12,000 1998 2 1 WI 25,668 10,000 eBird Canada
Common Goldeneye 9,756 2003 1 12 WI 25,668 10,000 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 100,000 1992 1 1 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 5,000 1993 1 1 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 6,750 1993 3 9 SP 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 5,313 1993 11 7 FA 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 10,800 1994 1 9 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 5,000 1994 2 19 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 8,000 1994 11 13 FA 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 10,000 1995 1 1 WI 13,000 5,600
Greater Scaup 5,000 1995 1 8 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 10,000 1995 4 1 SP 13,000 5,600
Greater Scaup 10,000 1995 10 1 FA 13,000 5,600
Greater Scaup 10,000 1996 1 28 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 5,000 1996 2 25 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 5,000 1996 11 8 FA 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 10,000 1996 11 10 FA 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 7,500 1997 1 19 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 30,000 1997 2 5 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 8,000 1997 12 7 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 15,000 1997 12 19 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 8,000 1998 11 1 FA 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 15,000 1999 1 10 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 4,770 1999 11 7 FA 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 5,000 2000 2 3 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 7,000 2000 2 5 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 6,000 2000 10 25 FA 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 10,000 2000 11 5 FA 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 10,000 2001 1 27 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 25,000 2001 10 28 FA 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 4,500 2001 11 4 FA 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 20,000 2002 11 3 FA 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 5,000 2004 11 21 FA 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 7,194 2005 12 25 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 4,700 2006 12 28 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 12,460 2007 1 7 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 6,500 2010 1 10 WI 13,000 5,600 Lake Ontario mid-winter waterfowl inventory
Greater Scaup 14,630 2011 1 9 WI 13,000 5,600 Lake Ontario mid-winter waterfowl inventory
Greater Scaup 14,444 2012 1 8 WI 13,000 5,600 Lake Ontario mid-winter waterfowl inventory
Greater Scaup 5,988 2013 1 6 WI 13,000 5,600 Lake Ontario mid-winter waterfowl inventory
Greater Scaup 7,000 2014 12 30 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 5,000 2015 1 24 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 5,200 2015 2 18 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada
Greater Scaup 7,127 2017 1 14 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Greater Scaup 6,038 2017 2 11 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Greater Scaup 6,087 2018 WI 13,000 5,600 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Kirtland's Warbler 1 2012 5 5 SP 21 21 1 eBird Canada
Little Gull 2 2002 11 3 FA 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 2 2003 5 24 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 3 2003 5 25 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 2 2004 5 25 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 2 2005 5 16 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 2 2006 4 14 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 3 2006 5 7 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 2 2009 4 22 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 3 2010 4 16 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 2 2014 4 10 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 7 2014 4 20 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 2 2014 4 26 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 3 2014 9 7 FA 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 2 2015 4 19 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 2 2015 9 6 FA 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 4 2017 4 29 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 2 2017 5 29 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 5 2017 5 29 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 5 2017 5 30 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 5 2017 5 31 SP 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 5 2017 6 4 SU 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 5 2017 6 5 SU 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 6 2017 6 6 SU 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 9 2017 7 5 SU 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 10 2017 8 1 FA 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 17 2017 8 3 FA 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 7 2017 8 4 FA 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 9 2017 8 6 FA 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Little Gull 2 2017 11 6 FA 1,732 2 eBird Canada
Loggerhead Shrike 1 1992 3 28 SP 42,000 37,000 1 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 1993 4 3 SP 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 30,000 1994 10 15 FA 64,750 10,000
Long-tailed Duck 25,000 1994 11 15 FA 64,750 10,000
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 1997 3 19 SP 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 30,000 1997 5 17 SP 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 25,000 1998 3 2 SP 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 1998 3 5 SP 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 1998 5 3 SP 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 20,000 1998 11 1 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 1999 2 4 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 26,000 1999 11 7 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 28,500 1999 11 7 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 52,000 2000 1 9 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2000 3 18 SP 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 40,000 2000 3 23 SP 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 25,000 2000 11 5 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2000 11 17 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 50,000 2001 1 1 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2001 1 14 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2001 1 27 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 50,000 2001 11 6 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 50,000 2001 12 1 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2001 12 2 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2001 12 7 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2002 4 7 SP 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 20,000 2002 11 3 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 8,500 2003 1 3 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 40,000 2003 1 12 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 30,000 2003 11 2 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 8,000 2004 11 21 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 8,500 2004 11 21 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 15,800 2005 1 9 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 24,300 2005 12 26 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 8,000 2006 10 21 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2006 11 5 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 103,000 2006 11 5 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 68,920 2007 1 7 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 100,000 2007 11 4 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 105,430 2007 11 4 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 8,000 2007 12 11 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 200,000 2008 11 2 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2008 11 23 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 20,000 2009 11 1 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 20,000 2009 11 12 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 8,883 2009 12 26 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2009 12 31 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 31,000 2010 11 7 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 37,600 2010 11 7 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 16,000 2010 11 13 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2010 12 4 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2011 11 6 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 21,000 2011 12 26 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,800 2012 1 8 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2012 11 3 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 15,000 2012 11 3 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2012 11 4 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 14,500 2012 11 4 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 13,007 2013 1 6 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2013 10 28 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2013 12 1 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 33,080 2014 1 5 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,350 2014 11 2 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 13,000 2014 11 2 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 15,000 2014 11 2 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 15,000 2014 11 6 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 8,650 2015 11 1 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2015 11 5 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 13,200 2015 11 21 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 29,391 2015 11 21 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Long-tailed Duck 16,900 2015 12 5 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 56,851 2015 12 5 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Long-tailed Duck 10,871 2016 1 16 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Long-tailed Duck 13,645 2016 1 30 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Long-tailed Duck 9,300 2016 3 12 SP 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Long-tailed Duck 11,971 2016 3 26 SP 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2016 4 18 SP 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 17,500 2016 11 7 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 20,000 2016 11 12 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 18,000 2016 11 15 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 20,000 2016 11 17 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 17,000 2016 11 27 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 12,000 2016 12 1 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 20,000 2016 12 4 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 16,464 2016 12 10 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Long-tailed Duck 10,981 2017 SP 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Long-tailed Duck 17,134 2017 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Long-tailed Duck 32,623 2017 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Long-tailed Duck 12,400 2017 1 2 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 8,063 2017 1 14 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2017 1 14 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 13,460 2017 2 11 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Long-tailed Duck 8,000 2017 11 8 FA 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 10,000 2017 12 2 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada
Long-tailed Duck 15,939 2018 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Long-tailed Duck 27,440 2018 WI 64,750 10,000 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Prothonotary Warbler 1 1993 5 6 SP 18,000 18,000 1 eBird Canada
Prothonotary Warbler 1 1995 5 26 SP 18,000 18,000 1 eBird Canada
Prothonotary Warbler 1 1996 5 10 SP 18,000 18,000 1 eBird Canada
Prothonotary Warbler 2 2001 5 8 SP 18,000 18,000 1 eBird Canada
Prothonotary Warbler 1 2005 5 16 SP 18,000 18,000 1 eBird Canada
Prothonotary Warbler 1 2007 5 15 SP 18,000 18,000 1 eBird Canada
Prothonotary Warbler 1 2007 6 3 SU 18,000 18,000 1 eBird Canada
Prothonotary Warbler 1 2008 5 10 SP 18,000 18,000 1 eBird Canada
Prothonotary Warbler 1 2008 5 14 SP 18,000 18,000 1 eBird Canada
Prothonotary Warbler 2 2011 5 8 SP 18,000 18,000 1 eBird Canada
Prothonotary Warbler 1 2011 5 16 SP 18,000 18,000 1 eBird Canada
Red-breasted Merganser 2,000 1990 10 16 FA 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada
Red-breasted Merganser 5,000 2004 11 11 FA 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada
Red-breasted Merganser 3,000 2007 11 12 FA 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada
Red-breasted Merganser 3,000 2008 10 31 FA 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada
Red-breasted Merganser 4,000 2008 11 14 FA 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada
Red-breasted Merganser 6,000 2009 10 30 FA 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada
Red-breasted Merganser 4,000 2009 10 31 FA 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada
Red-breasted Merganser 3,539 2010 1 10 WI 5,600 2,500 Lake Ontario mid-winter waterfowl inventory
Red-breasted Merganser 5,000 2010 11 21 FA 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada
Red-breasted Merganser 2,600 2010 12 19 WI 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada
Red-breasted Merganser 6,357 2011 1 9 WI 5,600 2,500 Lake Ontario mid-winter waterfowl inventory
Red-breasted Merganser 6,000 2012 10 31 FA 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada
Red-breasted Merganser 5,000 2012 11 3 FA 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada
Red-breasted Merganser 3,108 2013 1 6 WI 5,600 2,500 Lake Ontario mid-winter waterfowl inventory
Red-breasted Merganser 3,000 2013 11 3 FA 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada
Red-breasted Merganser 2,000 2014 11 4 FA 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada
Red-breasted Merganser 3,500 2015 11 10 FA 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada
Red-breasted Merganser 2,103 2017 SP 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Red-breasted Merganser 2,000 2017 11 23 FA 5,600 2,500 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 1,294 1996 4 7 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 420 1996 4 8 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 400 1998 10 30 FA 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 1,800 2004 4 4 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 1,500 2004 4 7 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 2,000 2004 4 7 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 1,800 2004 4 9 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 400 2005 4 5 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 350 2005 4 24 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 850 2005 4 24 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 904 2008 4 10 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 450 2008 4 19 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 525 2010 3 29 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 400 2011 10 4 FA 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 360 2012 3 29 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 1,250 2012 4 3 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 400 2012 10 5 FA 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 1,060 2016 4 13 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada
Red-necked Grebe 2,378 2017 SP 2,400 450 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Red-throated Loon 327 1995 11 19 FA 3,950 400 eBird Canada
Red-throated Loon 490 1995 11 19 FA 3,950 400 eBird Canada
Rusty Blackbird 60 1995 10 10 FA 11,000 11,000 30 30 7,552 eBird Canada
Rusty Blackbird 30 1996 10 14 FA 11,000 11,000 30 30 7,552 eBird Canada
Rusty Blackbird 50 2007 4 27 SP 11,000 11,000 30 30 7,552 eBird Canada
Rusty Blackbird 70 2011 4 26 SP 11,000 11,000 30 30 7,552 eBird Canada
Rusty Blackbird 200 2011 4 26 SP 11,000 11,000 30 30 7,552 eBird Canada
Rusty Blackbird 29 2011 4 27 SP 11,000 11,000 30 30 7,552 eBird Canada
Rusty Blackbird 32 2011 10 25 FA 11,000 11,000 30 30 7,552 eBird Canada
Rusty Blackbird 35 2012 4 24 SP 11,000 11,000 30 30 7,552 eBird Canada
Rusty Blackbird 45 2012 10 1 FA 11,000 11,000 30 30 7,552 eBird Canada
Rusty Blackbird 25 2012 10 9 FA 11,000 11,000 30 30 7,552 eBird Canada
Rusty Blackbird 45 2012 10 9 FA 11,000 11,000 30 30 7,552 eBird Canada
Rusty Blackbird 25 2013 9 27 FA 11,000 11,000 30 30 7,552 eBird Canada
Rusty Blackbird 56 2013 10 21 FA 11,000 11,000 30 30 7,552 eBird Canada
Rusty Blackbird 25 2015 4 18 SP 11,000 11,000 30 30 7,552 eBird Canada
Rusty Blackbird 50 2017 4 10 SP 11,000 11,000 30 30 7,552 eBird Canada
Tundra Swan 2,046 2016 3 12 SP 3,000 1,900 eBird Canada:IBA Protocol
Waterbirds 30,000 1995 10 15 FA 20,000
White-winged Scoter 15,000 1992 3 9 SP 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 5,000 1992 3 26 SP 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 10,000 1993 2 1 WI 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 8,000 1993 3 28 SP 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 5,000 1993 4 3 SP 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 10,000 1993 4 9 SP 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 10,000 1994 2 5 WI 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 5,000 1994 2 19 WI 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 10,000 1994 3 5 SP 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 7,000 1995 2 2 WI 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 6,000 1995 3 5 SP 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 11,100 1995 4 1 SP 23,500 5,000
White-winged Scoter 11,100 1995 10 1 FA 23,500 5,000
White-winged Scoter 5,000 1996 1 18 WI 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 10,000 1996 3 12 SP 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 5,000 1997 3 11 SP 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 10,000 1998 2 15 WI 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 10,000 2003 1 3 WI 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 15,000 2005 1 9 WI 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 5,410 2008 1 6 WI 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 5,000 2009 11 7 FA 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 9,500 2010 3 16 SP 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 4,364 2011 1 9 WI 23,500 5,000 Lake Ontario mid-winter waterfowl inventory
White-winged Scoter 8,000 2012 11 3 FA 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 5,205 2013 1 6 WI 23,500 5,000 Lake Ontario mid-winter waterfowl inventory
White-winged Scoter 5,500 2013 10 28 FA 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 18,235 2014 1 5 WI 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
White-winged Scoter 7,500 2014 10 27 FA 23,500 5,000 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 1992 5 12 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 1995 5 14 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 1997 5 17 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 1998 5 17 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 1999 5 9 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 2000 5 16 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 2004 5 2 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 2004 5 5 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 2004 5 20 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 2004 5 26 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 2005 6 11 SU 120,000 110,000 1 Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas (2001-2005)
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 2006 5 7 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 2007 5 8 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 2007 5 15 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 2009 5 17 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 2010 5 5 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 2011 5 28 SP 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 2012 8 21 FA 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Yellow-breasted Chat 1 2013 9 17 FA 120,000 110,000 1 eBird Canada
Note: species shown in bold indicate that the maximum number exceeds at least one of the IBA thresholds (sub-regional, regional or global). The site may still not qualify for that level of IBA if the maximum number reflects an exceptional or historical occurrence.
 
Conservation Issues
Pollution is the primary concern due to the amount of industrial development and agriculture around the western end of Lake Ontario. In particular, the biomagnification of toxics and pesticides through dreissenid mussels as food for the diving ducks is a concern. Shoreline development also has the potential for impacting birds, as does irresponsible disturbance of flocks by watercraft.

The IBA Program is an international conservation initiative coordinated by BirdLife International. The Canadian co-partners for the IBA Program are Bird Studies Canada and Nature Canada.
   © Bird Studies Canada